random rubble masonry specification
This means that on a positive note, further research may create new opportunities for stone masonry in the future. RDL n.2105 (1937). IS:4326-1967 (1968). After 1991 these countries started developing their own regulations, although most are still very similar to the Russian codes and are published bi-lingual (local language and Russian). Decreto 3209 – Earthquake Resistant Standard PDS-1 (1974), Part A Indicative Standards (in Spanish). It is therefore proposed to internationally adopt loadbearing Nominally Reinforced Masonry (NRM) as a fourth category. nHRN EN 1998-1:2011/NA (2011). The latter is prohibited for constructing buildings in seismic areas, and so are round river boulders. Built Environ. YA and SS assisted in collection of data and reviewed, revised, and restructured the manuscript. 2009 International Building Code. Tajikistan is extremely mountainous, with mountains covering 93% of its surface, of which more than half are situated above 3,000 m. Centrally located are the Pamir Mountains and all borders are surrounded by mountain ranges, such as the Hindu Kush with Afghanistan, Tian Shan with China, the Alay Mountains with Kyrgyzstan, and the Turkestan Range with Uzbekistan. Question: Calculate The Quantity Of Random Rubble Masonry Step 2 For The Short Wall(Single Wall) I RCC 180mm Thick 1490 Mm -RCC Lintel 150mm Thick 230 Mm Random Rubble Masonry Step2 Random Rubble Masonry Step1 -PCC 780 Mm 480 Mm 2000 Mm … SPECIFICATIONS AND INDIAN STANDARD FOR STONEWALL, STONE MASONRY AND STONEWORK, IS 1121 1974 METHOD OF TEST FOR DETERMINATION OF STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF NATURA BUILDING STONE PART 1 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH, IS 1121 1974 METHOD OF TEST FOR DETERMINATION OF STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF NATURA BUILDING STONE PART 2 TRANSVERSE STRENGTH, IS 1121 1974 METHOD OF TEST FOR DETERMINATION OF STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF NATURA BUILDING STONE PART 3 TENSILE STRENGTH, IS 1122 1974 METHOD OF TEST FOR DETERMINATION OF TRUE SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF NATURA BUILDING STONE, IS 1123 1995 METHOD FOR IDENTIFICATION OF NATURAL BUILDING STONE, IS 1124 1974 METHOD OF TEST FOR DETERMINATION OF WATER ABSORPTION APPARENT SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND POROSITY OF NATURAL BUILDING STONES, IS 1125 1974 METHOD OF TEST FOR DETERMINATION OF WEATHERING OF NATURAL BUILDING STONE, IS 1126 1974 METHOD OF TEST FOR DETERMINATION OF DURABILITY OF NATURA BUILDING STONE, IS 1127 1970 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR DIMENSIONS AND WORKMANSHIP OF NATURAL BUILDING STONES FOR MASONRY WORK, IS 1128 1974 SPECIFICATION FOR LIMESTONE (SLAB AND TILES), IS 1129 1972 RECOMMENDATION OF DRESSING OF NATURAL BUILDING STONES, IS 1130 1969 SPECIFICATION FOR MARBLE (BLOCK, SLABS, AND TILES), IS 1805 1973 GLOSSARY OF TERMS RELATING TO STONES QUARRYING AND DRESSING, IS 3316 1974 SPECIFICATION FOR STRUCTURAL GRANITE, IS 3622 1977 SPECIFICATION FOR SANDSTONE (SLAB AND TIELS), IS 3620 1979 SPECIFICATION FOR LATERITE STONE BLOCK FOR MASONRY, TOP 40 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS FOR CIVIL ENGINEER | CIVIL INSPECTOR | QC INSPECTOR IN INTERVIEW, Specification for Prime Coat and Tack Coat, JOB HAZARD ANALYSIS OF PIPE LAYING AND LIFTING. Bearing in mind the original Russian codes, it is likely that these dimensions are meant for regular masonry with dimensioned stone, and not for rubble stone masonry. The bushing on the faces of the stones shall not project more than 4 cm. It was already noted in 1977 that “a review of the earthquake codes of various countries shows that much of the information is empirically based and not theoretically derived. The first Bulgarian seismic code Decree n.15 (1947) allowed stone masonry for two-story buildings in the highest seismic zone IX, with a minimum wall thickness of 53 cm and maximum wall-spacing of 12 m, but without specification for the type of stones. Eurokodi 8 – For Construction and Masonry Constructions (in Albanian). RE-09/01/n.212 (1884). Since medieval times 50 cm thick loadbearing walls were built of a stone cladding type called “Midis,” with a double layer of roughly cut stones, filled with mortar and pumice in the middle. National Building Code of India 2016, Vol. AS55 (1955). New Delhi: Indian Standards Institution. Yemen, with its rich history of stone and earth block masonry, does not have a seismic nor masonry code at all. After the very damaging 1963 Skopje earthquake in Macedonia, a temporary code SFRY-39/64 (1964) was drafted. Standard Specification for Quartz-Based Dimension Stone. Riyadh: Saudi Building Code National Committee. One of the most common forms of masonry construction, coursed rubble stones are typically hammer dressed to be shaped into more controlled and equal sizes. 8 https://cementconcrete.org/buildings/building-materials/stone-masonry/1959 L-25/11/n.1684 (1962). It is further noted that for determination of seismic loads, Kyrgyzstan has switched to calculation models that follow Eurocode. The philosophy includes an updated and structured research approach that specifically addresses vernacular and traditional construction techniques: “Non-Engineered 2.0.” This third paper is a valuable addition to collect, review and compare the design specifications for rubble stone masonry buildings worldwide. Whittier: International Conference of Building Officials. EN 771-6:2011+A1 (2015). The country is assigned to just 2 very high seismic hazard levels; intensity zones 8 and 9. Decreto 1723 – Reinforced Brick Masonry (in Spanish). It further states that “for above-ground walls, sawn and chipped wall stones of the correct form are used. The editor and reviewers' affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review. Rubble stone masonry remains to be a primary construction method in this region and the review of the Himalayas includes Nepal, India, Pakistan and China. P13-63 (1963). Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. Eurocode 6 – Design of Masonry Structures - Part 1-1: General Rules for Reinforced and Unreinforced Masonry Structures. Szentendre: Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe. This almost negligible risk includes the complete Atlas Mountain ranges, where stone masonry is still broadly utilized. Recommendations for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures. – Type of masonry: Masonry is generally divided into 3 main types, being Unreinforced Masonry (URM), Confined Masonry (CM) and Reinforced Masonry (RM), as described by Silva et al. This is particularly the case for all Russian-based codes in Central Asia and the Caucasus, which indirectly refer to clauses that were developed in the 1950s for dimensioned tuff stones. Islamabad: Government of Pakistan. It is important to note that the buildings by SSF in Nepal have only incorporated horizontal bands in the walls, and that any vertical steel reinforcements are excluded. Also, it is questionable whether sizes, dimensions and details for thinner brick walls can be freely interchanged with those for thicker rubble stone walls, as also observed in the Nepalese “non-engineered” codes (NBC 202:2015, 2015). Official Gazette of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia n.31 of 5 June 1981, Belgrade. Wooden floors are allowed and the code further describes the inclusion of a continuous reinforced concrete band at floor or roof level, and wire mesh reinforcements in the horizontal joints at certain intervals, whilst vertical reinforcements are recommended and only mandatory in designs with complex plan configurations. This is not in line with the current needs in these countries, such as in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bhutan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Morocco, Tunisia, Turkey, Yemen and Albania. And lastly Italy, where rubble stone is still allowed, but only in zones with a very low seismic risk. Roughly one-third of Armenia’s dwellings are in the rural and mountainous areas. NBC 203:1994 (2007). MS collected all data, coordinated all fact-checking through interaction with the experts worldwide, and wrote the manuscript. The focus is on newly constructed houses and schools, for which the specific search criteria are described in the next chapter. New Delhi: Bureau of Indian Standards. TJ 11-78 (1979). Norms for Planning and Design of Structures in Seismic Areas (in Persian). It distinguishes three types of masonry: Ordinary (meaning Unreinforced), Confined and Reinforced. MKS CT 22-07-2007 (2007). Roughly 60% of the surface of Azerbaijan is covered by mountains, such as the Greater and Lesser Caucasus Ranges and the Talysh Mountains bordering Iran. KMK 2.01.03-96 (2004). DTU Règles-PS-92 (2004). The maximum number of stories ranges from just one in Iran and China to five in Croatia, which is a remarkable difference as each corresponding maximum acceleration at site is 0.20g. The Typology of the Residential Building Stock in Albania and the Modelling of its Low-Carbon Transformation. Main mountain ranges of North Africa, East and South Europe (original source: Natural Earth raster + vector map). 4, 60–64. *Correspondence: Martijn Schildkamp, firstname.lastname@example.org, Front. Kathmandu: Department of Urban Development and Building Construction. Beijing: Ministry of Construction of the People’s Republic of China. Built Environ., 20 October 2020 However, in the 2004 amendment an extra clause is added to the separate chapter for “low-rise buildings with low-strength materials” such as adobe and wood: “For the construction of one-story buildings it is allowed to use natural stone with anti-seismic measures, developed according to special technical conditions agreed upon by the State Architects of the Republic of Uzbekistan.” Uzbekistan is working on a revision of their seismic code which is expected to be published in 2020. “Portuguese studies on earthquake resistant structures,” in Proceedings of the 2nd World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, (Tokyo: Gakujutsu Bunken Fukuy-Rai). In the first edition of IS:1893-1962 (1962) the country was divided into 7 seismic zones (0–VI), which was brought to 5 zones (I–V) after the Konya earthquake in 1967 (IS:1893-1970, 1970). In the method of grouting 2 to 4 holes are grilled per 1 square meter. The stones used are quarried in such a manner and of such sizes so that they can be lifted and placed by hand. Ordinance on Temporary Technical Regulations for Construction in Seismic Regions (in Serbo-Croatian). Horizontal bands and reinforcements must be included at 6 levels (plinth, sill, lintel, top, and stitches at two levels), and vertical bars at all critical wall connections and jambs of openings. Construction in Seismic Areas. Further, when constructing on rock soil, the design class goes down with one point from intensity zone 6 to 7, for which no seismic verification is required. Greece is seismically one of the most hazardous regions of Europe, with a rich history of stone masonry. Rubble stones are placed in leveled courses to obtain a certain level of bonding and stability in the walls. Houses are not permitted in category E (zone V), and “should preferably be avoided” in category D (zone IV). – No consensus was found on any of the design specifications and main dimensions between these countries and the differences vary greatly, which raises questions about the reliability and value of the knowledge in this field. Yerevan: Ministry of Urban Development of the Republic of Armenia. This chapter summarizes the design specifications for those countries that still allow the technique of rubble stone masonry buildings with cement mortar and wooden diaphragms in seismic areas. RPCTerre-2011 (2013). Moscow: Ministry of Construction Industry. Armenia must be excluded, because wooden diaphragms are prohibited, and their main construction material is dimensioned tuff stone blocks; rubble stone masonry is not commonly used. Tokyo: Japan Society of Civil Engineers. Technical Instructions for the Execution of Rubble Stone Masonry (in Romanian). Beijing: Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People’s Republic of China. The Alpine-Himalayan belt is one of the most earthquake-prone regions in the world, caused by movement of the Indian Plate toward the Eurasian Plate with a rate of approximately 35–50 mm between western to eastern plate boundaries (Jade et al., 2017). For URM unfortunately, no further dimensions nor details are given, in contrast to a separate code that Morocco has published for earthen structures in seismic areas, as “this cultural heritage has great aesthetic quality and remarkable adaptation to climatic conditions” (RPCTerre-2011, 2013). However, some northern countries that border the Mediterranean Sea are subject to significant earthquake risks. ASTM C568/C568M (2015). Although Albania has adopted Eurocode, these regulations are not yet implemented. Specification for Masonry Units – Part 6: Natural Stone Masonry Units. Resmî Gazete n.12801 of 16/01/1968 (in Turkish). Rubble stone is allowed for masonry walls of agricultural, non-residential and industrial buildings.”. Technical Design Conditions Book 1 – Technical Design Conditions for Constructions in Seismic Zones (in Albanian). Several countries that possess a high seismic risk have been excluded from the review since these never had a past history nor have a present culture of stone masonry, such as Japan, Taiwan, Indonesia, the Philippines, United States, Canada and New Zealand. 1982-102-1 (1982). Therefore, to avoid any further confusion, the authors of this paper propose the introduction of a fourth type of masonry, as well as the international adoption of the term “Nominally Reinforced Masonry” (NRM) in conjunction with the existing types of URM, CM and RM. Code for Seismic Design of Buildings, 2016 Edition (in Chinese). Temporary Construction Guidelines for Earthquake Regions (in Turkish). In all cases, URM must be strengthened with a horizontal tie-beam at floor and roof level, and a floor type that provides adequate diaphragm action. Ankara: Ministry of Public Works and Settlement. This contrasts with stones that are cut, squared and dimensioned into a regular-sized parallelepiped shape, which is known as “Ashlar” (Figure 1B). However, it is generally assumed that these relate to rubble stones, since this is the most generally used construction material, whereas dimensioned tuffs were never common at all in Uzbekistan (Nurtaev, 2019). Lastly, it is important to note that a significant number of countries where stone masonry is still broadly practiced today, are currently not allowing the technique, or have no codes in place to begin with, such as Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bhutan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Morocco, Tunisia, Turkey, Yemen, and Albania. It describes a maximum floor-to-floor height of 3.0 m, minimum wall thickness 0.35 m, and minimum masonry width in corners, as well as for piers, of 600 mm. Geneva: United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. For instance, after the 2015 Gorkha earthquake in Nepal it was estimated that roughly 980,000 schools and houses were damaged and destroyed throughout the country, of which over 80% took place in the rural areas, of which 95% consisted of low-strength masonry; the majority being stone with mud mortar (National Planning Commission, 2015). The review of national seismic and masonry codes has brought several further issues to light. Gazzetta Ufficiale n.42 del 20 Febbraio 2018, Rome. Building Regulations for the Municipalities of the Island of Ischia Damaged by the Earthquake of July 28, 1883 (in Italian). NBC 105:1994 (2007). GB 50099-2011 (2010). (B) Unreinforced Ashlar stone masonry with lime-sand mortar. It is also important that codes clearly mention what stone types are allowed, with a clear difference between random rubble, and cut stones with brick-like dimensions. For instance, in Afghanistan most of the construction takes place in rural areas and with traditional techniques. GB 50011-2010 (2016). The maximum width of openings is 2.0 m, corner masonry has a minimum length of 2.5 m and piers minimum 2.2 m. Horizontal concrete bands at floor level are mandatory, but as floors must act as rigid diaphragms, wooden floors are not allowed. ZMMYT-44 (1944). NBC 203:2015 (2015). Both codes have a disclaimer on the cover page, stating that “the publication represents a standard of good practice and therefore takes the form of recommendations. Its latest version with amendments IS:13828-1993 (2018) divides all buildings into categories, based on the seismic zonation factor Z and the building importance factor I. On top of that, it is emphasized that rubble stone, among other materials like pumice and adobe, “shall not be used as bearing wall material.” This is unfortunate, as reconnaissance reports show that rural one-story stone houses with traditional nominal reinforcements and light roofs behaved well under seismic motion, such as during the 2003 Bingöl (Ozcebe et al., 2003) and 2011 Van-Erciş earthquakes (Aydan et al., 2012). This raises questions about the completeness and correctness, as well as the reliability and actual value of the knowledge in this field. Openings may not exceed 1.2 m, piers must be minimum 650 mm and corner masonry must be at least two-thirds of the height of the adjoining opening. Yerevan: Ministry of Urban Development of the Republic of Armenia. RDL-22/03/n.640 (1935). Dhajji Dewari, Affordable Seismically Resistant and Sustainable Housing, Revision C. Dubai: Arup Gulf Ltd. HRN EN 1996-1-1:2012/NA (2012). But other than a few minor remarks about using stones in foundations and civic works, nothing for rubble stone masonry is described in any of the national codes of Argentina, Chile, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Dominican Republic, Haiti and Cuba. Conditional Rules for the Design of Civil and Industrial Constructions in Seismic Regions (in Romanian). Design Codes (in Armenian). To summarize all the above parameters in one sentence, this worldwide review is focusing on the specific characteristics of “low-rise buildings with cement-mortared rubble stone masonry walls, that are brought to courses and nominally reinforced with reinforced concrete bands, with wooden floors and a wood-trussed roof” (Figure 1C). Unfortunately, this code has become very difficult to read and interpret, due to its many amendments and references to other codes outside the publication, such as for foundations, stone types and seismic provisions. Front. Cairo: Housing and Building National Research Center. Like Nepal, the Indian codes are not mandatory from the state level. Kabul: Urban and Construction Projects Institute. Built Environ. Country Profiles on the Housing Sector, Tajikistan. Guidelines On: Load Bearing Masonry. It is noteworthy that the earliest codes of the 1950s and 1960s had included a quite elaborate chapter about rural construction with earthen materials, which is still present in most recently updated seismic code SP 14.13330.2018 (2018). Floors must be made of wooden members, the roof structure must be properly anchored to the walls and made as stiff as possible. Nrm and “ truly ” URM, next to RM and cm, no seismic verifications are needed to. 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